E-ISSN 2146-3077
Original Article
Determining the Prevalence of Cryptosporidium Infections with Acid Fast Staining and ELISA in Calves at the Kars Province of Turkey
1 Kafkas Üniversitesi Kars Meslek Yüksekokulu, Veterinerlik Bölümü, Kars, Türkiye  
2 Kafkas Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Tıbbi Mikrobiyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Kars, Türkiye  
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2017; 41: 5-8
DOI: 10.5152/tpd.2017.4833
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Key Words: Cryptosporidium parvum, calf, acid-fast staining, ELISA, Kars
Abstract

Objective: This study aimed to comparatively determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections in calves grown at dairies under farm or village conditions at the Kars Province using modified acid-fast (mAF) staining and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

 

Methods: Stool samples constituting the study material were collected between March and June 2011 from rectums of calves at 22 centers in the villages and farms of the Kars Province. Calves were divided into 2 groups: 3-90 days old (up to 3 months old) and 91-180 days old (older than 3 months). The study material comprised 313 stool samples (146 diarrheal samples and 167 healthy samples). Each of the samples was first examined using mAF staining; of these samples, 222 were examined using the C. parvum ELISA kit (Bio-X Diagnostics), whereas 91 were examined using the Cryptosporidium commercial ELISA kit (Diagnostic Automation, Inc., USA) for the presence of Cryptosporidium copro-antigens.

 

Results: The incidence of the presence of Cryptosporidium among the calves was 3.8% (12/313) with mAF staining and 5.1% (16/313) with ELISA. All the samples in which the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts was determined using mAF staining were determined to be positive using ELISA. Cryptosporidium was found to be present in 5.5% (8/146) and 7.5% (11/146) of diarrheal calves, 2.4% (4/167) and 3.0% (5/167) of healthy calves, 4.0% (10/253) and 5.5% (14/253) of calves aged up to 3 months, and 3.3% (2/60) (via both tests) of calves aged 3-6 months. C. parvum was present in 5.9% (13/222) of the calves; it was found at a higher concentration in calves aged up to 3 months (6.2%; 12/194) than in those aged 3-6 months (3.6%; 1/28). Of the C. parvum-positive cases, 9 cases were found to have diarrhea, whereas 4 were observed to be healthy. C. parvum copro antigens were observed at the highest level (7.4%; 8/108) in diarrheal calves aged up to 3 months. At the species level, the rate of incidence of Cryptosporidium copro-antigens in calves examined using ELISA for determining Cryptosporidium factors was found to be 3.3% (3/91), and the same rate was found 3.4% (2/59) in calves aged up to 3 months and 3.1% (1/32) in those aged 3-6 months.

 

Conclusion: The prevalence of Cryptosporidium infections among the calves was observed to decrease in recent years.

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